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Research suggests that a cognitive gap begins as early as nine months of age in Black males, widens by two years of age, and by fifth grade cognition lags by nearly two full years (ETS, 2011). This gap is a result of multiple facets: “Children are suffering from a toxic cocktail of poverty, illiteracy, racial discrimination and massive incarceration that sentences poor boys to dead-end hopeless lives” (ETS, 2011, p. 2). The outcome is the Black male being inadequately educated and academically behind other subcultures of the population. Lack of family support, poor school systems with inadequate resources, peer pressure, prejudice, and discrimination as well as individual factors such as self-concept, racial identity, lack of academic motivation, test-taking skills and learning styles are societal and personal factors that have led to the achievement gap in Black males (Moore, Ford & Milner, 2005).


IAGC Journal



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