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Ping Yin; Northwestern University
Serdar E. Bulun; Northwestern University


HOXA10, CD1, PR, ERα, c-Myc, Ishikawa, endocrine disrupting chemicals, phthalates


Biochemistry | Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology | Cancer Biology | Cell and Developmental Biology | Cell Biology | Chemicals and Drugs | Endocrinology | Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists | Immunology and Infectious Disease | Immunopathology | Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Other Cell and Developmental Biology | Physiology


Phthalates are used as plasticizers in many of the products found in medical, household, and industrial applications. Much research has not been completed on the effects of these phthalates as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). As these chemicals are ingested, the mechanism by which they affect the reproductive system is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe how 2 phthalates, Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and 2 phthalate alternatives, Dioctyl terephthalate (DOTP) and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)affect uterine cells in comparison to a vehicle treatment and 17β-Estradiol treatment. Changes in expression of mRNA were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results from this study show that based on trends of change in the genes CD1, C-myc, ERα, PR, and HOXA10, each of the four chemical treatments changed proliferation in Ishikawa cells. Our results have opened possible classifications for mechanisms that the chemical treatments may follow as potential EDCs.



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