Independent Study

Document Type

Book Review

Publication Date



Kitty Lam, PhD; Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy


Border security, Biometrics, Migration management, Identity


In the post-9/11 world defined by a newfound focus on biometric technologies and heightened efforts of security, Benjamin J. Muller explores the development of a “biometric state” and “virtual borders.” He analyzes their effect on citizenship and immigration with a focus on the effect on citizenship and the resultant criminalization of peaceful citizens, as well as argues that the use of biometrics causes the negligence of false positives and the proliferation of virtual borders into everyday life. Through examinations of airport biometric use, the NEXUS trusted traveler program, and TSA, as well as case studies of countries that have attempted to integrate biometric technologies into their the book investigates the rationale of “governing through risk.”



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