Grade Level: Kindergarten
Shoveling snow and sledding often are winter activities in the Midwest. Both require a force to occur. Pushing or pulling on the item will have different effects on the movement of that item. In the case of sledding, a greater force may result in a faster speed or a greater distance covered by the sled. Applying a force in a different direction may result in a change of direction of the object. Shoveling is more successful when the shovel is pushed rather than pulled.
K-PS2-1 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of push and pulls on the motion of an object.
K-2-ETS1-1 Engineering Design
Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.
K-2-ETS1-2 Engineering Design
Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.
Martinez, Elizabeth, "Physical Science - WHICH SHOVEL? Engineering Challenge" (2020). Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade. 7.