Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Document Type

Teacher Resource

Grade Level

Grade Level: Kindergarten

Publication Date


Background Information

Shoveling snow and sledding often are winter activities in the Midwest. Both require a force to occur. Pushing or pulling on the item will have different effects on the movement of that item. In the case of sledding, a greater force may result in a faster speed or a greater distance covered by the sled. Applying a force in a different direction may result in a change of direction of the object. Shoveling is more successful when the shovel is pushed rather than pulled.

Performance Expectations

K-PS2-1 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of push and pulls on the motion of an object.

K-2-ETS1-1 Engineering Design

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

K-2-ETS1-2 Engineering Design

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.



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